Genetic endophenotypes for insomnia of major depressive disorder and treatment-induced insomnia.


Pharmacotherapeutics Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. [Email]


Major depressive disorder (MDD) is primarily hinged on the presence of either low mood and/or anhedonia to previously pleasurable events for a minimum of 2 weeks. Other clinical features that characterize MDD include disturbances in sleep, appetite, concentration and thoughts. The combination of any/both of the primary MDD symptoms as well as any four of the other clinical features has been referred to as MDD. The challenge for replicating gene association findings with phenotypes of MDD as well as its treatment outcome is putatively due to stratification of MDD patients. Likelihood for replication of gene association findings is hypothesized with specificity in symptoms profile (homogenous clusters of symptom/individual symptoms) evaluated. The current review elucidates the genetic factors that have been associated with insomnia symptom of MDD phenotype, insomnia symptom as a constellation of neuro-vegetative cluster of MDD symptom, insomnia symptom of MDD as an individual entity and insomnia feature of treatment outcome. Homozygous CC genotype of 3111T/C, GSK3B-AT/TT genotype of rs33458 and haplotype of TPH1 218A/C were associated with insomnia symptom of MDD. Insomnia symptom of MDD was not resolved in patients with the A/A genotype of HTR2A-rs6311 when treated with SSRI. Homozygous short (SS) genotype-HTTLPR, GG genotype of HTR2A-rs6311 and CC genotype of HTR2A-rs6313 were associated with AD treatment-induced insomnia, while val/met genotype of BDNF-rs6265 and the TT genotype of GSK-3beta-rs5443 reduced it. Dearth of association studies may remain the bane for the identification of robust genetic endophenotypes in line with findings for genotypes of HTR2A-rs6311.


Antidepressants,Endophenotype,Genetic polymorphism,Insomnia,Major depressive disorder,SSRI,

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