Green synthesis, in vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies of Tamarindus indica based gold nanoparticles.


Ullah U(1), Rauf A(2), El-Sharkawy E(3), Khan FA(4), Khan A(5), Bukhari SM(4), Bawazeer S(6), Mabkhot YN(7)(8), Malikovna BK(9), Kazhybayeva G(10), Shariati MA(11), Thiruvengadam M(12).
Author information:
(1)Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, 25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
(2)Department of Chemistry, University of Swabi, Anbar, 23561, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. [Email]
(3)Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Northern Borders University, Arar, Saudi Arabia.
(4)Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan.
(5)Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, P.O. Box 33 Birkat Al Mauz, PC 616, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman.
(6)Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
(7)Department of Pharnaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha, 61421, Saudi Arabia.
(8)Research Center for Advanced Materials Sciences
(RCAMS), King Khalid University, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia.
(9)Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
(10)S. Toraighyrov Pavlodar State University, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan.
(11)K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management
(the First Cossack University), 73, Zemlyanoy Val St., Moscow, 109004, Russian Federation.
(12)Department of Crop Science, College of Sanghuh Life Science, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea. [Email]


The current investigation aims to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica and to evaluate the in vitro anti-bacterial and in vivo sedative and anelgescic activities of crude extract as well as synthesized AuNPs. Several methods have been reported to synthesize AuNPs; however, most of them were not ecofriendly. In the present study, the green synthesis of AuNPs has been carried out. Using the green synthesis method, AuNPs of T. indica were synthesized at room temperature (25 °C) by mixing 5 mL of HAuCl4 (1 mM) with 1 mL of T. indica seed extract solution. This extract solution was prepared by taking 5 gm dry seeds in 100 mL of double deionized water with continuous stirring for up to 24 h at 80 °C. The stability of AuNPs was confirmed with the help of relevant experimental techniques including ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) showing maximum absorbance at 535-540 nm, Fourier transform infrared showing a broad signal at 3464 cm-1 which can be attributed to either amide or hydroxyl functionalities and atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the biomaterial surrounding AuNPs was agglomerated which proves the formation of discrete nanostructutres. These AuNPs have been evaluated for their antibacterial potential. The results revealed good antibacterial activity of the samples against. Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis with 10-12 mm zone of inhibition range. The AuNPs were also found stable at high temperature, over a range of pH and in 1 mM salt solution. Moreover, the crude extract and respective AuNPs also exhibited interesting sedative and analgesic activities. Hence, we focused on phytochemicals-mediated synthesis of AuNPs considered as greatest attention in the treatment of anti-bacterial, analgesic, and sedative.