Health risks of inhaled selected toxic elements during the haze episodes in Shijiazhuang, China: Insight into critical risk sources.

Affiliation

Diao L(1), Zhang H(1), Liu B(2), Dai C(3), Zhang Y(1), Dai Q(1), Bi X(1), Zhang L(3), Song C(4), Feng Y(1).
Author information:
(1)State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control & Tianjin Key Laboratory of Urban Transport Emission Research, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, China.
(2)State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control & Tianjin Key Laboratory of Urban Transport Emission Research, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(3)Shijiazhuang Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Center of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, 050022, China.
(4)School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

Abstract

PM2.5 in Shijiazhuang was collected from October 15, 2018 to January 31, 2019, and selected toxic elements were measured. Five typical haze episodes were chosen to analyze the health risks and critical risk sources. Toxic elements during the haze episodes accounted for 0.33% of PM2.5 mass. Non-cancer risk of toxic elements for children was 1.8 times higher than that for adults during the haze episodes, while cancer risk for adults was 2.5 times higher than that for children; cancer and non-cancer risks were primarily attributable to As and Mn, respectively. Health risks of toxic elements increased during the growth and stable periods of haze episodes. Non-cancer and cancer risks of toxic elements during the haze stable periods were higher than other haze stages, and higher for children than for adults during the stable period. Mn was the largest contributor to non-cancer risk during different haze stages, while As was the largest contributor to cancer risk. Crustal dust, vehicle emissions, and industrial emissions were critical sources of cancer risk during the clean-air periods; while vehicle emissions, coal combustion, and crustal dust were key sources of cancer risk during the haze episodes. Cancer risks of crustal dust and vehicle emissions during the haze episodes were 2.0 and 1.7 times higher than those in the clean-air periods. Non-cancer risks from emission sources were not found during different periods. Cancer risks of biomass burning and coal combustion increased rapidly during the haze growth period, while that of coal combustion decreased sharply during the dissipation period. Vehicle emissions, crustal dust, and coal combustion were significant cancer risk sources during different haze stages, cancer risk of each source was the highest during the stable period. Southern Hebei, Northern and central Shaanxi were potential risk regions that affected the health of both adults and children in Shijiazhuang.