Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Shortly After Surgery for a Secondary Glioblastoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.


Department of Neurosurgery, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier University Medical Center, Montpellier, France. Electronic address: [Email]


BACKGROUND : Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) co-occurrence has been described in few cases presenting immunocompromised status related to chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Focal encephalitis over surgical edge of resection occurring shortly after GBM resection is rarely reported, and such infection has never been reported in low-grade glioma with secondary malignant transformation (i.e., secondary GBM). Here, we report a case of HSE misdiagnosed in the early postoperative course following a secondary GBM resection. We also provide a review of the literature about HSE occurring after glioma surgery.
METHODS : We report a case of an acute HSE with a fatal outcome occurring shortly after surgery for a secondary GBM. The patient presented with hyperthermia 12 days after the surgery and was treated with empirical antibiotics. She later suffered from seizure and neurologic deterioration, leading to death despite delayed antiviral administration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed considerable fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery signal progression at the edge of the surgical resection and polymerase chain reaction amplification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 DNA was positive.
CONCLUSIONS : Clinicians should be aware of the existing co-occurrence between HSV infections and GBM during the postoperative course. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis with HSV polymerase chain reaction testing should be promptly undertaken, and some keys clinical elements should justify early empirical treatment, including acyclovir administration. The significant prognostic implication of HSE complicating GBM must raise the attention of neurosurgeon and neuro-oncologist about this entity.


Brain tumor,Encephalitis,Glioblastoma,Glioma,Herpes simplex virus,Herpetic encephalitis,