Honey bee exposure scenarios to selected residues through contaminated beeswax.

Affiliation

Wilmart O(1), Legrève A(2), Scippo ML(3), Reybroeck W(4), Urbain B(5), de Graaf DC(6), Spanoghe P(7), Delahaut P(8), Saegerman C(9).
Author information:
(1)Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain
(FASFC), Directorate Control Policy, Staff Direction for Risk Assessment, 55 Boulevard du Jardin Botanique, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: [Email]
(2)Université catholique de Louvain
(UCL), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Earth & Life Institute
(ELI), 2 bte L7.05.03 Croix du Sud, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
(3)Scientific Committee, Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, 55 Boulevard du Jardin Botanique, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium; University of Liège
(ULiège), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Sciences - Laboratory of Food Analysis, Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health
(FARAH) Center, 10 Avenue de Cureghem, B43bis, B-4000 Liège, Sart-Tilman, Belgium.
(4)Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
(ILVO), Technology and Food Science Unit, 370 Brusselsesteenweg, B-9090 Melle, Belgium.
(5)Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products
(FAMHP), Eurostation II, 40/40 Place Victor Horta, B-1060 Brussels, Belgium.
(6)Ghent University
(UGent), Faculty of Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular Entomology and Bee Pathology, 281 S2 Krijgslaan, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
(7)Scientific Committee, Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, 55 Boulevard du Jardin Botanique, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium; Ghent University
(UGent), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Plants and Crops, 653 Coupure links, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
(8)Scientific Committee, Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, 55 Boulevard du Jardin Botanique, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium; Centre d'Economie Rurale
(CER), Département Santé, 8 Rue de la Science, B-6900 Aye, Belgium.
(9)Scientific Committee, Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, 55 Boulevard du Jardin Botanique, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium; University of Liège
(ULiège), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research Unit of Epidemiology and Risk analysis applied to Veterinary sciences
(UREAR-ULiège), Fundamental and Applied Research for Animal and Health
(FARAH) Center, Quartier Vallée 2, 7A Avenue de Cureghem, B42, B-4000 Liège, Sart-Tilman, Belgium.

Abstract

Twenty-two pesticides and veterinary drugs of which residues were detected in beeswax in Europe were selected according to different criteria. The risk to honey bee health posed by the presence of these residues in wax was assessed based on three exposure scenarios. The first one corresponds to the exposure of larvae following their close contact with wax constituting the cells in which they develop. The second one corresponds to the exposure of larvae following consumption of the larval food that was contaminated from contact with contaminated wax. The third one corresponds to the exposure of adult honey bees following wax chewing when building cells and based on a theoretical worst-case scenario (= intake of contaminants from wax). Following these three scenarios, maximum concentrations which should not be exceeded in beeswax in order to protect honey bee health were calculated for each selected substance. Based on these values, provisional action limits were proposed. Beeswax exceeding these limits should not be put on the market.