Hydro air abrasion on dental glass-ceramics: A direct 3D analysis by stylus profilometry.


Materials Characterization Facility, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


Air abrasion is used in dentistry for cavity opening, post-endodontic cavity cleaning, and removal of hard deposits or stains. Different applications may require different settings. We aimed to gain better understanding of the effect of some operating parameters on the efficiency of air abrasion on a model dental material. We abraded lithium disilicate glass-ceramic blocks (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) with Prepstart H2O device (Danville) and 27-µm-size aluminium oxide abrasive (Danville). At 5 bar constant pressure, we varied incidence direction, treatment time, distance, powder consumption, and supporting medium, in separate experiments addressing individual aspects. The abraded surfaces were characterized by stylus profilometer XP-2 (Ambios). Laboratory condition of normal incidence at fixed direction showed threefold increased volume abrasion vs 45° incidence and oscillating direction. Working in air, 2 mm distance was more efficient than 1 and 5 mm, likely due to its influence on the abrading particles speed. Maximum vs medium powder consumption decreased the abraded volume, while increasing the treated area. Using water restricted the treated surface. To minimize the risk of dental material damage, the best conditions should be 45° direction and 5 mm distance, which both increase the treated area. To counteract this, water may be used. The most abrasive condition is instead 90°, at intermediate 2 mm distance. In most cases, abraded volume scales linearly with time. The present combination of device and abrasive can be effective even on enamel-like ceramic material. Tuning air abrasion settings to the specific dental application appears to be necessary.


3D morphology,Air abrasion,Aluminium oxide,Glass-ceramic,Stylus profilometry,

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