Ischemic stroke is one of the most common sources of mortality in the world. Researchers have been trying to find a complementary therapy to treat ischemic stroke in order to improve its prognosis and expand the therapeutic window for reperfusion treatment. For this reason, many experimental and clinical trials studying the effects of hydrogen against ischemic stroke have been published. Hydrogen gas has been found to eliminate hydroxyl free radical and peroxynitrite anions as well as producing therapeutic effect in patients with ischemic stroke. Many studies have been published illustrating its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning treatment of cerebral I/R injury or ischemic stroke with hydrogen therapy. Specifically, we will examine the appropriate laboratory methods, mechanisms of hydrogen therapy, and outcomes of relevant clinical trials. We conclude this review with a discussion on future investigations of hydrogen therapy to treat ischemic stroke.