Cells activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to cope with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of psychological stress on UPR induction in the mouse brain. When mice were exposed to immobilization stress for 8 h, XBP1 mRNA splicing was significantly induced in the hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and brain stem. On the other hand, we did not observe any increase in XBP1 splicing in the liver, suggesting that this effect is specific to the brain. Stress-induced XBP1 splicing was attenuated 2 days after immobilization stress. We did not observe increases in any other UPR genes, such as CHOP or GRP78, in mouse brains after immobilization stress. These findings indicate an important specific role of XBP1 in response to psychological stress in the mouse brain.