Immunotherapies and immunomodulatory approaches in clinical trials - a mini review.

Affiliation

Iqbal Yatoo M(1), Hamid Z(2), Rather I(1), Nazir QUA(1), Bhat RA(1), Ul Haq A(1), Magray SN(3), Haq Z(4), Sah R(5), Tiwari R(6), Natesan S(7), Bilal M(8), Harapan H(9)(10)(11), Dhama K(12).
Author information:
(1)Division of Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Shuhama, Alusteng Srinagar, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
(2)Department of Biotechnology, University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
(3)Division of Animal Biotechnology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Shuhama, Alusteng Srinagar, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
(4)ICAR-Centre for Research on Poultry, Division of Livestock Production and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Shuhama, Alusteng Srinagar, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
(5)Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal.
(6)Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences, UP Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan
(DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India.
(7)Department of Infectious Diseases, Indian Institute of Public Health Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
(8)School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, China.
(9)Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
(10)Tropical Disease Centre, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
(11)Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
(12)Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created havoc worldwide. Due to the non-availability of any vaccine or drugs against COVID-19, immunotherapies involving convalescent plasma, immunoglobulins, antibodies (monoclonal or polyclonal), and the use of immunomodulatory agents to enhance immunity are valuable alternative options. Cell-based therapies including natural killer cells, T cells, stem cells along with cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLRs) based therapies are also being exploited potentially against COVID-19. Future research need to strengthen the field of developing effective immunotherapeutics and immunomodulators with a thrust of providing appropriate, affordable, convenient, and cost-effective prophylactic and treatment regimens to combat global COVID-19 crisis that has led to a state of medical emergency enforcing entire countries of the world to devote their research infrastructure and manpower in tackling this pandemic.