Impact of music on anxiety and pain perception among men undergoing prostate biopsy: Synthesis of qualitative literature.


Dell'Atti L(1).
Author information:
(1)Division of Urology, University Hospital "Ospedali Riuniti", Department of Clinical, Special and Dental Sciences, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


Prostate biopsy (PB) is typically well tolerated, with a low risk of major complications. Pain during PB was significantly decreased by the addition of intracapsular lidocaine anesthesia. However, PB is invasive procedure and can be a distressing experience for patients. In the last decade numerous environmental, technological and pharmacological factors have been utilized to reduce anxiety and pain associated with urological procedures. Music is increasingly recognized as a cheap and effective means for relieving anxiety and pain during a variety of surgical and endoscopic procedures. However, it may be difficult to clarify if music has a real impact on pain. In light of these considerations, the aim of this mini-review is to present the use of music on anxiety and pain during prostate biopsy in ambulatory care setting, and to suggest the most appropriate and effective standards that could be useful for practicing urologists.