Impact of young age on outcomes of emergency department procedural sedation.

Affiliation

Collaborators: Johnson DW(4), Farion KJ(5), Ali S(6), Beno S(7), Dixon A(6), McTimoney CM(4), Travassos G(4), McGahern C(8), Cantor Z(8), Fitzpatrick E(9), Dow N(6), Naranian T(7), Allard G(10).
Author information:
(1)Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L1, Canada. Electronic address: [Email]
(2)Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13001 E 17th Pl, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address: [Email]
(3)Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L1, Canada. Electronic address: [Email]
(4)Alberta Children's Hospital, Canada.
(5)CHEO, Canada.
(6)Stollery Children's Hospital, Canada.
(7)Hospital for Sick Children, Canada.
(8)Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Canada.
(9)IWK Health Centre, Canada.
(10)Montreal Children's Hospital, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Relatively little is known about outcomes of procedural sedation in very young children. Our objective was to examine the association between procedural sedation in young children (≤ 2 years) and the incidence of sedation-related adverse events. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of children 0 to 18 years undergoing parenteral procedural sedation in six Canadian pediatric emergency departments (ED). The primary risk factor was age ≤ 2 years. Secondary risk factors were sex, procedure type, pre-procedure and sedation medications. The outcomes examined were: serious adverse events (SAE), significant interventions, oxygen desaturation and vomiting. RESULTS: Of the 6295 patients included, 946 (15%) were ≤2 years. Children 13-24 months comprised 90% of the young age group. Children ≤ 2 years were sedated most commonly for laceration repair (n = 450; 47.6%), while orthopedic reduction was most common in children > 2 (n = 3983; 74.5%). Ketamine was the most common medication in both groups, but was used more frequently in children ≤ 2 years (80.9% vs 58.9%; p < 0.001). There was no difference in the odds of SAE (OR 0.83, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.4 to 1.9), significant intervention (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.7) or oxygen desaturation (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.3) between age groups, however children ≤ 2 years vomited less frequently (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Young age, specifically between 13 and 24 months, was not associated with a significant difference in the incidence of adverse events.

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