Impacts of Chinese spring festival on household PM(2.5) pollution and blood pressure of rural residents.


Du W(1), Wang J(1), Zhang S(1), Fu N(2), Yang F(1), Wang G(1)(3), Wang Z(4), Mao K(5), Shen G(6), Qi M(7), Liu S(1), Wu C(1), Chen Y(8).
Author information:
(1)Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of the Ministry of Education, School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
(2)School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing, China.
(3)Institute of Eco-Chongming, Shanghai, China.
(4)College of Oceanography, Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
(5)State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, China.
(6)Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
(7)School of Public and International Affairs, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
(8)College of Environment, Research Centre of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.


BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) from residential combustion considerably affects human health in rural China. Large-scale population migration and rural lifestyle changes during the Spring Festival are supposed to change the household air pollution and health risks; however, limited field study has determined its impacts on HAP and short-term health outcomes. METHODS: A field study was conducted in rural areas of Southern China before and during the Spring Festival to explore the associations between HAP and blood pressure considering different factors such as cooking fuel, heating fuel, and smoking. Stationary real-time PM2.5 monitors were used to measure PM2.5 concentrations of the kitchen, living room, and yard of 156 randomly selected households. Personal exposure to PM2.5 was calculated based on the results of stationary samplers and corresponding time local residents spent in different microenvironments, and one adult resident was recruited of each family for the blood pressure measurement. RESULTS: Both personal exposure to PM2.5 and blood pressures of local residents increased during Spring Festival compared to the days before the holiday. Based on generalized linear model coupled with dominance analysis approach, it was found that personal PM2.5 exposure was positively associated with the factors of population size and the types of cooking and heating fuels with the relative contributions of approximately 82%, and systolic blood pressure (SBP, 100-120 mmHg as normal range for adults) was positively and significantly associated with personal PM2.5 exposures with the relative contribution of 11%. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study demonstrated that Spring Festival can give rise to increase of HAP and hypertension risks, also related to tremendous solid fuel use, suggesting further policy making on promoting cleaner energy in rural areas and more attention on large population migration during national holidays.