Implantation of Combined Telemetric ECG and Blood Pressure Transmitters to Determine Spontaneous Baroreflex Sensitivity in Conscious Mice.

Affiliation

Rötzer RD(1), Brox VF(1), Hennis K(1), Thalhammer SB(1), Biel M(2), Wahl-Schott C(3), Fenske S(4).
Author information:
(1)Center for Integrated Protein Science
(CIPS-M) and Center for Drug Research, Department of Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
(2)Center for Integrated Protein Science
(CIPS-M) and Center for Drug Research, Department of Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München; German Center for Cardiovascular Research
(DZHK), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance.
(3)Hannover Medical School, Institute for Neurophysiology; [Email]
(4)Center for Integrated Protein Science
(CIPS-M) and Center for Drug Research, Department of Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München; German Center for Cardiovascular Research
(DZHK), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance; [Email]

Abstract

Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are both controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and are closely intertwined due to reflex mechanisms. The baroreflex is a key homeostatic mechanism to counteract acute, short-term changes in arterial BP and to maintain BP in a relatively narrow physiological range. BP is sensed by baroreceptors located in the aortic arch and carotid sinus. When BP changes, signals are transmitted to the central nervous system and are then communicated to the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system to adjust HR. A rise in BP causes a reflex decrease in HR, a drop in BP causes a reflex increase in HR. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is the quantitative relationship between changes in arterial BP and corresponding changes in HR. Cardiovascular diseases are often associated with impaired baroreflex function. In various studies reduced BRS has been reported in e.g., heart failure, myocardial infarction, or coronary artery disease. Determination of BRS requires information from both BP and HR, which can be recorded simultaneously using telemetric devices. The surgical procedure is described beginning with the insertion of the pressure sensor into the left carotid artery and positioning of its tip in the aortic arch to monitor arterial pressure followed by the subcutaneous placement of the transmitter and ECG electrodes. We also describe postoperative intensive care and analgesic management. After a two-week period of post-surgery recovery long-term ECG and BP recordings are performed in conscious and unrestrained mice. Finally, we include examples of high-quality recordings and the analysis of spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity using the sequence method.