The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiaging effect of a probiotic mixture using an in vivo mouse model in which aging was induced with d-galactose. Results of the Morris water maze test indicated that long-term administration of the probiotic mixture improved memory and learning abilities and ameliorated the apoptosis pattern in the hippocampus of aging mice treated with d-galactose. An antioxidation experiment indicated that administration of the probiotic mixture could restore activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and inhibit the production of malondialdehyde. The antioxidant-related proteins nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were upregulated in liver after treatment of d-galactose-treated aging mice with probiotics. Finally, the probiotic treatment did affect the production of short-chain fatty acids in d-galactose-treated aging mice. Our results highlighted a possible antioxidative effect triggered by short-chain fatty acids that contributed to improving the memory and learning abilities following treatment with the probiotic mixture and suggested that probiotics could serve as a therapy to modulate physiological function.