Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential to proper growth and development of human bodies. Inhibiting the sulfation metabolism of THs has been demonstrated to be an important way for some environmental pollutants, such as halogenated phenolic compounds, to interfere THs homeostasis, thereby causing health problems. However, the important property characteristics that govern the sulfation inhibition of these chemicals are not well understood, and the experimental data on inhibition potential is limited. In this work, an in silico approach was developed to investigate the structure-activity relationship for their sulfotransferases (SULTs) inhibition. A series of quantum chemical descriptors that quantify the electronic and energy properties of 22 halogenated phenolic compounds have been calculated to establish a predictive model and analyzed their corresponding contributions to SULTs inhibition. Density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-31G** has been employed to optimize molecular geometries to obtain a total of 15 descriptors for every compound. The implementation of linear regression shows three descriptors that represent molecular mass, positive charges on hydrogen atoms, and energy of frontier orbitals strongly correlate with SULTs inhibition potential. This indicates molecular size, hydrogen-bond strength, and nucleophilic-electrophilic reactivity may play important roles in SULTs inhibition. The derived regression model has good statistical performance (r2 = 0.84, rms = 0.35), and different validation strategies indicate it can serve as an efficient predictive tool for other chemicals in application domain but with no experimental data, consequently assisting in their THs sulfation inhibition and health risk assessment.