Infective endocarditis complicated by embolic events: Pathogenesis and predictors.

Affiliation

Hu W(1), Wang X(2), Su G(1).
Author information:
(1)Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
(2)Department of Hematology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) continues to be associated with great challenges. Embolic events (EE) are frequent and life-threatening complications in IE patients. It remains challenging to predict and assess the embolic risk in individual patients with IE accurately. HYPOTHESIS: Accurate prediction of embolization is critical in the early identification and treatment of risky and potentially embolic lesions in patients with IE. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases using a range of related search terms, and reviewed the literatures about the pathogenesis and embolic predictors of IE. RESULTS: The development of IE and its complications is widely accepted as the result of complex interactions between microorganisms, valve endothelium, and host immune responses. The predictive value of echocardiographic characteristics is the most powerful for EE. In addition, both easily obtained blood biomarkers such as C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, D-Dimer, troponin I, matrix metalloproteinases, and several microbiological or clinical characteristics might be promising as potential predictors of EE. CONCLUSION: Our review provides a synthesis of current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis and predictors of embolism in IE along with a review of potentially emerging biomarkers.