Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a prevalent and serious brain injury with significant morbidity and disability. However, the underlying pathogenesis of DAI remains largely unclear, and there are still no objective laboratory-based tests available for clinicians to make an early diagnosis of DAI. An integrated analysis of metabolomic data and proteomic data may be useful to identify all of the molecular mechanisms of DAI and novel potential biomarkers. Therefore, we established a rat model of DAI, and applied an integrated UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomics and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to obtain unbiased profiling data. Differential analysis identified 34 metabolites and 43 proteins in rat plasma of the injury group. Two metabolites (acetone and 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde) and two proteins (Alpha-1-antiproteinase and Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein) were identified as potential biomarkers for DAI, and all may play important roles in the pathogenesis of DAI. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of integrated metabolomics and proteomics method to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms of DAI, and may help provide clinicians with some novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.