Investigation of the estuarine stonefish (Synanceia horrida) venom composition.


Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, 4072, Australia. Electronic address: [Email]


The Estuarine stonefish (Synanceia horrida) is recognised as one of the most venomous fish species in the world but the overall venom composition has yet to be investigated using in-depth transcriptomic and proteomic methods. To date, known venom components are restricted to a hyaluronidase and a large, pore-forming toxin known as Stonustoxin (SNTX). Transcriptomic sequencing of the venom gland resulted in over 170,000 contigs with only 0.4% that were homologous to putative venom proteins. Integration of the transcriptomic data with proteomic data from the S. horrida venom confirmed the hyaluronidase and SNTX to be present, together with several other protein families including major contributions from C-type lectins. Other protein families observed included peroxiredoxin and several minor protein families such as Golgi-associated plant pathogenesis related proteins, tissue pathway factor inhibitors, and Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors that, although not putative venom proteins, may contribute to the venom's adverse effects. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Proteomic analysis of milked Synanceia horrida venom, paired with transcriptomic analysis of the venom gland tissue revealed for the first time the composition of one of the world's most dangerous fish venoms. The results demonstrate that the venom is relatively less complex compared to other well-studied venomous animals with a number of unique proteins not previously found in animal venoms.


Proteomics,Stonefish,Synanceia horrida,Toxins,Transcriptomics,Venom,

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