In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of nitrofurantoin against clinical
isolates of E. coli in Japan and evaluation of biological cost of nitrofurantoin
resistant strains using a mouse urinary tract infection model.
INTRODUCTION: Nitrofurantoin is a well-established antibiotic, and is an important first-line oral treatment for uncomplicated urinary tract infections. However, little information is available with respect to its antibacterial activity in Japan, in vivo efficacy, or the in vivo biological cost of resistant strains. METHODS: We compared the susceptibility of six representative antibacterial agents-nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, fosfomycin, mecillinam, ciprofloxacin, and cefdinir-against E. coli clinically isolated in Japan during 2017. We evaluated the in vivo efficacy of nitrofurantoin using a model of mouse urinary tract infection caused by ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. We obtained nitrofurantoin resistant isolates through tests generating spontaneous mutations, and assessed the in vivo fitness of nitrofurantoin resistant isolates. RESULTS: The MIC90 of nitrofurantoin was 16 μg/mL, and was the lowest among the drugs tested. It was found that, in the mouse urinary tract infection model, 30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of nitrofurantoin reduced the count of viable bacterial cells in the kidney, while 100 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin did not. All spontaneous bacterial mutants resistant to nitrofurantoin had deletions in the nfsA gene, and we found that the resistant strain had lower growth in the mouse urinary tract infection model than in the parent strain. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated promising in vitro and in vivo activity of nitrofurantoin against E. coli clinical isolates in Japan, and lower in vivo fitness of the resistant strain of nitrofurantoin.
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