Iron addiction with ferroptosis-resistance in asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis: Toward the era of mesothelioma prevention.


Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan; Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: [Email]


Cancer is the primary cause of human mortality in most countries. This tendency has increased as various medical therapeutics have advanced, which suggests that we cannot escape carcinogenesis, although the final outcome may be modified by exposomes and statistics. Cancer is classified by its cellular differentiation. Mesothelial cells are distinct in that they line somatic cavities, facilitating the smooth movement of organs, but are not exposed to the external environment. Malignant mesothelioma, or simply mesothelioma, develops either in the pleural, peritoneal or pericardial cavities, or in the tunica vaginalis testes. Mesothelioma has been a relatively rare cancer but is socially important due to its association with asbestos exposure, caused by modern industrial development. The major pathogenic mechanisms include oxidative stress either via catalytic reactions against the asbestos surface or frustrated phagocytosis of macrophages, and specific adsorption of hemoglobin and histones by asbestos fibers in the presence of phagocytic activity of mesothelial cells. Multiwall carbon nanotubes of ~50 nm-diameter, additionally adsorbing transferrin, are similarly carcinogenic to mesothelial cells in rodents and were thus classified as Group 2B carcinogens. Genetic alterations found in human and rat mesothelioma notably contain changes found in other excess iron-induced carcinogenesis models. Phlebotomy and iron chelation therapies have been successful in the prevention of mesothelioma in rats. Alternatively, loading of oxidative stress by non-thermal plasma to mesothelioma cells causes ferroptosis. Therefore, carcinogenesis by foreign fibrous inorganic materials may overlap the uncovered molecular mechanisms of birth of life and its evolution.


Asbestos,Cancer prevention,Iron,Mesothelioma,Nanomaterials,Non-thermal plasma,Pathogenesis,