Kim W(1), Jang JH(1), Zhong X(1), Seo H(2), Surh YJ(1)(2)(3).

Affiliation

Kim W(1), Jang JH(1), Zhong X(1), Seo H(2), Surh YJ(1)(2)(3).
Author information:
(1)Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
(2)Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
(3)Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Abstract

Uncontrolled macrophage functions cause failure to resolve gut inflammation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), one of endogenous lipid mediators formed from arachidonic acid during the inflammatory process, has been reported to terminate inflammation. However, the pro-resolving effect of 15d-PGJ2 on intestinal inflammation and underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of 15d-PGJ2 on the resolution of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis that mimics human IBD. Pharmacologic inhibition of prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) responsible for the synthesis of 15d-PGJ2 hampered resolution of inflammation in the colonic mucosa of mice treated with DSS. Notably, intraperitoneal injection of 15d-PGJ2 accelerated the resolution of experimentally induced colitis. 15d-PGJ2 treatment reduced the number of neutrophils and M1 macrophages, while it increased the proportion of M2 macrophages. Moreover, 15d-PGJ2 treated mice exhibited the significantly reduced proportion of macrophages expressing the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6 with concomitant suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation in the colonic mucosa of mice administered 2.5% DSS in drinking water. Taken together, these findings clearly indicate that 15d-PGJ2, endogenously generated from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase-2 and PGDS activities in inflamed tissue, promotes resolution of intestinal colitis.