Ligand density on nanoparticles: A parameter with critical impact on nanomedicine.


Fachbereich Physik and CHyN, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan. Electronic address: [Email]


Nanoparticles modified with ligands for specific targeting towards receptors expressed on the surface of target cells are discussed in literature towards improved delivery strategies. In such concepts the ligand density on the surface of the nanoparticles plays an important role. How many ligands per nanoparticle are best for the most efficient delivery? Importantly, this number may be different for in vitro and in vivo scenarios. In this review first viruses as "biological" nanoparticles are analyzed towards their ligand density, which is then compared to the ligand density of engineered nanoparticles. Then, experiments are reviewed in which in vitro and in vivo nanoparticle delivery has been analyzed in terms of ligand density. These results help to understand which ligand densities should be attempted for better targeting. Finally synthetic methods for controlling the ligand density of nanoparticles are described.


Antibody,Ligand density,Nanoparticles,Nanoscience,Nanotechnology,Targeting,

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