MIPP-Seq: ultra-sensitive rapid detection and validation of low-frequency mosaic mutations.

Affiliation

Doan RN(1)(2)(3), Miller MB(4)(5), Kim SN(4)(6), Rodin RE(4), Ganz J(4), Bizzotto S(4), Morillo KS(4), Huang AY(4), Digumarthy R(4), Zemmel Z(4), Walsh CA(7)(8)(9)(10).
Author information:
(1)Division of Genetics and Genomics, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Center for Life Sciences 15062, 300 Longwood Avenue, BCH3150, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. [Email]
(2)Allen Discovery Center for Human Brain Evolution, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. [Email]
(3)Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. [Email]
(4)Division of Genetics and Genomics, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Center for Life Sciences 15062, 300 Longwood Avenue, BCH3150, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
(5)Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
(6)Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.
(7)Division of Genetics and Genomics, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Center for Life Sciences 15062, 300 Longwood Avenue, BCH3150, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. [Email]
(8)Allen Discovery Center for Human Brain Evolution, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. [Email]
(9)Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, 20815, USA. [Email]
(10)Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Mosaic mutations contribute to numerous human disorders. As such, the identification and precise quantification of mosaic mutations is essential for a wide range of research applications, clinical diagnoses, and early detection of cancers. Currently, the low-throughput nature of single allele assays (e.g., allele-specific ddPCR) commonly used for genotyping known mutations at very low alternate allelic fractions (AAFs) have limited the integration of low-level mosaic analyses into clinical and research applications. The growing importance of mosaic mutations requires a more rapid, low-cost solution for mutation detection and validation. METHODS: To overcome these limitations, we developed Multiple Independent Primer PCR Sequencing (MIPP-Seq) which combines the power of ultra-deep sequencing and truly independent assays. The accuracy of MIPP-seq to quantifiable detect and measure extremely low allelic fractions was assessed using a combination of SNVs, insertions, and deletions at known allelic fractions in blood and brain derived DNA samples. RESULTS: The Independent amplicon analyses of MIPP-Seq markedly reduce the impact of allelic dropout, amplification bias, PCR-induced, and sequencing artifacts. Using low DNA inputs of either 25 ng or 50 ng of DNA, MIPP-Seq provides sensitive and quantitative assessments of AAFs as low as 0.025% for SNVs, insertion, and deletions. CONCLUSIONS: MIPP-Seq provides an ultra-sensitive, low-cost approach for detecting and validating known and novel mutations in a highly scalable system with broad utility spanning both research and clinical diagnostic testing applications. The scalability of MIPP-Seq allows for multiplexing mutations and samples, which dramatically reduce costs of variant validation when compared to methods like ddPCR. By leveraging the power of individual analyses of multiple unique and independent reactions, MIPP-Seq can validate and precisely quantitate extremely low AAFs across multiple tissues and mutational categories including both indels and SNVs. Furthermore, using Illumina sequencing technology, MIPP-seq provides a robust method for accurate detection of novel mutations at an extremely low AAF.