Macrophage Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals MINCLE-dependent and -independent Mycobacterial Cord Factor Signaling.

Affiliation

From the ‡Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; [Email]

Abstract

Immune sensing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on recognition by macrophages. Mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), is the most abundant cell wall glycolipid and binds to the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) MINCLE. To explore the kinase signaling linking the TDM-MINCLE interaction to gene expression, we employed quantitative phosphoproteome analysis. TDM caused upregulation of 6.7% and suppressed 3.8% of the 14,000 phospho-sites identified on 3727 proteins. MINCLE-dependent phosphorylation was observed for canonical players of CLR signaling (e.g. PLCγ, PKCδ), and was enriched for PKCδ and GSK3 kinase motifs. MINCLE-dependent activation of the PI3K-AKT-GSK3 pathway contributed to inflammatory gene expression and required the PI3K regulatory subunit p85α. Unexpectedly, a substantial fraction of TDM-induced phosphorylation was MINCLE-independent, a finding paralleled by transcriptome data. Bioinformatics analysis of both data sets concurred in the requirement for MINCLE for innate immune response pathways and processes. In contrast, MINCLE-independent phosphorylation and transcriptome responses were linked to cell cycle regulation. Collectively, our global analyses show substantial reprogramming of macrophages by TDM and reveal a dichotomy of MINCLE-dependent and -independent signaling linked to distinct biological responses.

Keywords

C-type lectin receptor,Kinases*,Mincle,Phosphoproteome,RNA SEQ,Signal Transduction*,Tuberculosis,macrophage,mycobacteria,trehalose-6, 6-diymcolate,