Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, La Conception University Hospital, Assistance publique-hôpitaux de Marseille, 13385 Marseille cedex, France; CNRS, IUSTI, Aix-Marseille Université, 13453 Marseille, France. Electronic address: [Email]
Fungus ball is the most common form of non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Aspergillusfumigatus (between 44.8% and 75%) and Aspergillusflavus (14%) are the two most common species recovered. However, recent advances in mycological laboratory methods have enhanced the detection and identification of fungi within fungus balls. Fusarium species, sometimes recovered from other forms of fungal rhinosinusitis such as allergic fungal rhinosinusitis or acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, are poorly associated with sinonasal fungus ball. Here, we describe two further cases of a fungus ball due to Fusariumproliferatum and provide the first description of this fungal pathogen with a fungus ball of odontogenic origin. These case reports demonstrate that uncommon fungal species such as Fusarium spp. might be underestimated as agents of sinusal cavity fungus ball. Enhanced mycological detection and diagnostic techniques might give rise, in the near future, to the emergence of new or rare fungal species associated with this clinical entity.