Soberco Environnement, Chemin de Taffignon, 69630 Chaponost, France; Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et Ecologie, UMR CNRS-IRD, Avignon Université, Aix-Marseille Université, IUT d'Avignon, 337 chemin des Meinajariés, Site Agroparc BP 61207, 84911, Avignon, cedex 09, France. Electronic address: [Email]
Environmental policies and the objective of no net loss highlight the importance of preserving ecological networks to limit the fragmentation of natural habitats and biodiversity loss, especially due to urbanization. In the environmental impact assessment context, habitat connectivity and the spatio-temporal dynamics of biodiversity are crucial to obtaining reliable predictions that can support decision-making. We propose a methodological framework 1) to quantify the overall impact of a development project on the functioning of an ecological network, and 2) to select the best locations for implanting new habitat patches intended to enhance landscape connectivity. The amount of reachable habitat concept was applied to three representative terrestrial mammal species: the red squirrel, the Eurasian badger and the European hedgehog. All three species are recognized as vulnerable to human pressures and potentially affected by the construction of a new stadium in our study site, Lyon (Southern France). The method combines the species distribution model Maxent with the landscape functional connectivity model Graphab. The results showed that using any one of the avoidance and reduction measures on its own was unsuccessful in achieving the objective of no net loss when habitat connectivity is considered. However, the combination of new habitat patches and corridors offered a higher gain than distinct measures. This is especially important in the short term, when new hedgerow plantations have not yet developed enough to be used by the target species. Our findings indicate, first, the need to take the temporal scale into account in environmental impact assessment. We also show that applying the optimal scenario, constructed using a cumulative patch addition followed by a similar process testing a set of potential land-use changes, maximizes habitat connectivity. Our methodology provides a useful tool to increase target species' habitat connectivity within the mitigation hierarchy and to enhance development project design for increased environmental efficiency.