Membrane-Binding Cooperativity and Coinsertion by C2AB Tandem Domains of Synaptotagmins 1 and 7.


Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado. Electronic address: [Email]


Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt-1) and synaptotagmin-7 (Syt-7) contain analogous tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which together sense Ca2+ to bind membranes and promote the stabilization of exocytotic fusion pores. Syt-1 triggers fast release of neurotransmitters, whereas Syt-7 functions in processes that involve lower Ca2+ concentrations such as hormone secretion. Syt-1 C2 domains are reported to bind membranes cooperatively, based on the observation that they penetrate farther into membranes as the C2AB tandem than as individual C2 domains. In contrast, we previously suggested that the two C2 domains of Syt-7 bind membranes independently, based in part on measurements of their liposome dissociation kinetics. Here, we investigated C2A-C2B interdomain cooperativity with Syt-1 and Syt-7 using directly comparable measurements. Equilibrium Ca2+ titrations demonstrate that the Syt-7 C2AB tandem binds liposomes lacking phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) with greater Ca2+ sensitivity than either of its individual domains and binds to membranes containing PIP2 even in the absence of Ca2+. Stopped-flow kinetic measurements show differences in cooperativity between Syt-1 and Syt-7: Syt-1 C2AB dissociates from PIP2-free liposomes much more slowly than either of its individual C2 domains, indicating cooperativity, whereas the major population of Syt-7 C2AB has a dissociation rate comparable to its C2A domain, suggesting a lack of cooperativity. A minor subpopulation of Syt-7 C2AB dissociates at a slower rate, which could be due to a small cooperative component and/or liposome clustering. Measurements using an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe indicate that the Syt-7 C2B domain inserts deeply into membranes as part of the C2AB tandem, similar to the coinsertion previously reported for Syt-1. Overall, coinsertion of C2A and C2B domains is coupled to cooperative energetic effects in Syt-1 to a much greater extent than in Syt-7. The difference can be understood in terms of the relative contributions of C2A and C2B domains toward membrane binding in the two proteins.

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