Metabolic and NH4 excretion rate of fresh water species, Chondrostoma regium in response to environmental stressors, different scenarios for temperature and pH.

Author

Nasrollah Mahboobi-Soofiani

Affiliation

Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Changes in water temperature and pH levels have substantial adverse effects on aquatic organisms, hence causing physiological constraint on their well-being. To understand the physiological responses of Chondrostoma regium to temperature or pH changes, standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), absolute and factorial aerobic scope (AS&FAS) as well as the specific rate of ammonia excretion (Jamm) were measured at following temperatures: acute low (3.5-4.5 °C), 24 h low (5.5-6.5 °C), 7 d low (5.5-6.5 °C), acute high (30-31 °C), 24 h high (29-30 °C), 7 d high (28-29 °C), and different pH treatments: acute low (4.3-4.4), 24 h low (4.3-4.4), 7 d low (6.3-6.4), acute high (9.8-9.9), 24 h high (9.8-9.9), 7 d high (8.8-8.9). A control group was also assigned to optimum temperature = 22-23 °C and pH = 7.8-7.9. These experimental ranges for each treatment were obtained based on critical thermal and pH thresholds, i.e., 1.9 to 31.7 °C and 2.7 to 11.1, respectively. SMR was enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) following pH treatments, except for 24 h low pH treatment. Results showed significant (P < 0.05) changes in both SMR and MMR at low and high temperature treatments. The AS was elevated following pH treatments except for acute low pH treatment in which AS significantly was declined (P < 0.05). Low temperature treatments resulted in lower AS while no significant changes in AS were observed in high temperatures. In all treatments, FAS value did not differ significantly from control, except for acute and 24 h low treatments of both temperature and pH. All high pH and temperature treatments showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in Jamm. Histopathological results of gills indicated hyperplasia and fusion of secondary lamella and kidneys histopathology revealed necrosis and loss of tubular lumen in the most treatments. Results indicated that increases in water temperature or pH are more stressful than the lower ranges of them, suggesting higher capability of fish to adjust to the low levels of temperature or pH.

Keywords

Aerobic scope,Alkaline water,Ammonium quotient,Gill and kidney histopathology,Oxygen consumption,Thermal stress,