Antibiotic resistance and biodiversity were investigated in microbial communities attached to inner surfaces of water supply fittings in a chlorinated drinking water distribution system (DWDS) supplied by two independent water treatment plants (WTPs) drawing the same source water. The investigation of the effect of the season, the applied water treatment technology, and type, material, and age of water supply fittings on both antibiotic resistance and biodiversity in biofilms involved collection of tubercles during summer and winter seasons throughout the DWDS. A total of 16 samples were collected (8 per season) from areas supplied by two independent WTPs. Culturable aerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) proved more prevalent in summer. Various antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were detected, confirming the role of biofilms as ARGs reservoirs, but the abundances of quantified genes (sulI, ermB, qacEΔ1, intI1) were low (a range of
Having over 250 Research scholars worldwide and more than 400 articles online with open access.