Microbiological and Cellular Evaluation of a Fluorine-Phosphorus-Doped Titanium Alloy, a Novel Antibacterial and Osteostimulatory Biomaterial with Potential Applications in Orthopedic Surgery.

Author

John-Jairo Aguilera-Correa

Affiliation

Department of Clinical Microbiology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain [Email] [Email]

Abstract

Joint prosthesis failure is mainly related to aseptic loosening and prosthetic joint infections, both of which are associated with high morbidity and substantial costs for patients and health systems. The development of a biomaterial that is capable of stimulating bone growth while minimizing bacterial adhesion would reduce the incidence of prosthetic failure. We report antibacterial and osteostimulatory effects in a novel fluorine-phosphorus (F-P)-doped TiO2 oxide film grown on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a nanostructure of bottle-shaped nanotubes (bNT) using five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) and MCT3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The interaction between the bacteria and bNT Ti-6Al-4V was complex, as the adhesion of four bacterial species decreased (two staphylococcus species, E. coli, and S. maltophilia), and the viability of staphylococci and S. maltophilia also decreased because of the aluminum (Al) released by bNT Ti-6Al-4V. This released Al can be recruited by the bacteria through siderophores and was retained only by the Gram-negative bacteria tested. P. aeruginosa showed higher adhesion on bNT Ti-6Al-4V than on chemically polished (CP) samples of Ti-6Al-4V alloy and an ability to mobilize Al from bNT Ti-6Al-4V. The cell adhesion and proliferation of MCT3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells significantly increased at 48 and 168 h, as did the matrix mineralization of these cells and the gene expression levels of three of the most important markers related to bone differentiation. According to our results, the bNT Ti-6Al-4V alloy could have clinical application, preventing infection and stimulating bone growth and thus preventing the two main causes of joint prosthesis failure.IMPORTANCE This work evaluates F-P-doped bNT Ti-6Al-4V from microbiological and cellular approaches. The bacterial results highlight that the antibacterial ability of bNT Ti-6Al-4V is the result of a combination of antiadhesive and bactericidal effects exerted by Al released from the alloy. The cell results highlight that F-P bNT Ti-6Al-4V alloy increases osseointegration due to modification of the chemical composition of the alloy resulting from P incorporation and not due to the nanostructure, as reported previously. A key finding was the detection of Al release from inside the bNT Ti-6Al-4V nanostructures, a result of the nanostructure growth during the anodizing process that is in part responsible for its bactericidal effect.

Keywords

Ti-6Al-4V alloy,antibacterial,fluorine,joint prosthesis,osteostimulation,phosphorus,