Microcystins-LR induced apoptosis via S-nitrosylation of GAPDH in colorectal cancer cells.


Cancer Research Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cancer Immunotherapy, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Tumor Immunology Research, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China; Center for Medical Transformation, Shunde Hospital, Southern Medical University, Foshan, 528308, China. Electronic address: [Email]


Microcystins-LR (MC-LR), a cyanobacterial toxins, initiate apoptosis in normal and tumor cells. Nitric oxide produced by iNOS is necessary for MC-LR-induced apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanism of NO mediated MC-LR cytotoxicity remains unclear. Here, we performed in vitro experiments on MC-LR cytotoxicity associated with NO induced S-nitrosyation of GAPDH in human colon cancer cells SW480. MTT assay indicated that MC-LR decreased the cellular viability by high concentration (>1 μM). Flow cytometer assay revealed that apoptosis was core mode for MC-LR cytotoxicity. Griess assay showed that MC-LR exposure increased the release of NO through the function of NOS1 and NOS2 in SW480 cells. In turn, NO stress induced the S-nitrosylated modification of GAPDH leading to its nuclear translocation following Siah1 binding. CHIP assay showed that the nuclear GADPH increased P53 transcript of a panner of apoptosis related genes. Moreover, apoptosis induced by MC-LR could be reduced by GAPDH or si-Siah1 or NOSs inhibitor, L-NAME. Thus, our study verified a molecular mechanism of NO/GAPDH/Siah1 cascade in MC-LR mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells, providing a further understanding the in vitro molecular mechanism of MC-LR colorectal toxicity.



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