Cancer Research Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cancer Immunotherapy, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Tumor Immunology Research, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China; Center for Medical Transformation, Shunde Hospital, Southern Medical University, Foshan, 528308, China. Electronic address: [Email]
Microcystins-LR (MC-LR), a cyanobacterial toxins, initiate apoptosis in normal and tumor cells. Nitric oxide produced by iNOS is necessary for MC-LR-induced apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanism of NO mediated MC-LR cytotoxicity remains unclear. Here, we performed in vitro experiments on MC-LR cytotoxicity associated with NO induced S-nitrosyation of GAPDH in human colon cancer cells SW480. MTT assay indicated that MC-LR decreased the cellular viability by high concentration (>1 μM). Flow cytometer assay revealed that apoptosis was core mode for MC-LR cytotoxicity. Griess assay showed that MC-LR exposure increased the release of NO through the function of NOS1 and NOS2 in SW480 cells. In turn, NO stress induced the S-nitrosylated modification of GAPDH leading to its nuclear translocation following Siah1 binding. CHIP assay showed that the nuclear GADPH increased P53 transcript of a panner of apoptosis related genes. Moreover, apoptosis induced by MC-LR could be reduced by GAPDH or si-Siah1 or NOSs inhibitor, L-NAME. Thus, our study verified a molecular mechanism of NO/GAPDH/Siah1 cascade in MC-LR mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells, providing a further understanding the in vitro molecular mechanism of MC-LR colorectal toxicity.