Microwave assisted extraction in combination with solid phase purification and switchable hydrophilicity solvent-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonamides in chicken meat.
A rapid and eco-friendly method was developed to extract and pre-concentrate sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine and sulfadimethoxine) from chicken meat before high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The method involved rapid microwave-assisted extraction with hydrochloric acid (pH = 5), further solid phase purification using HLB cartridge and 5% ammonium hydroxide, and homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction using hexanoic acid as switchable hydrophilicity solvent. The overall time required for sample preparation was 10 min and the volume of organic solvent used for extraction was only 200 μL. The method exhibited good linearity (r2 > 0.9941), low limits of detection (2.5-6.0 ng/g) and allowed quantification of target sulfonamides spiked at levels of 50-400 ng/g in chicken meat with spiked recoveries in the range of 94.1%-112.0%.