Adequate oxygen supply by exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen at appropriately high atmospheric pressure (1266-1317 hPa) and increased oxygen concentration (35-40% oxygen) has a possibility of improving the oxidative metabolism in cells and tissues without barotrauma and excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, metabolic syndrome and lifestyle-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes and hypertension, in rats were inhibited and/or improved by exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen. It accelerated the growth-induced increase in oxidative capacity of the skeletal muscle in rats and inhibited the age-related decrease in oxidative capacity of the skeletal muscle in mice. A decrease in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of mice with Parkinson's disease was inhibited by exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen. This review describes the beneficial effects of exposure to mild hyperbaric oxygen on some metabolic diseases and their perspectives.