Mitogenomic Perspectives on the Adaptation to Extreme Alkaline Environment of Amur ide (Leuciscus waleckii).

Affiliation

College of Fishery Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007, Henan, China. [Email]

Abstract

Amur ide (Leuciscus waleckii, Family Cyprinidae) is widely distributed in Northeast Asia. L. waleckii usually inhabits freshwater environments but can also survive in the Lake Dali Nur, one of the most extreme aquatic environments on the earth, with an alkalinity up to 50 mmol/L (pH 9.6). To investigate mechanisms of mitogenomic evolution underlying adaptation to extreme environments, we determined 30 complete mitogenomes that included Lake Dali Nur (alkaline environment, AL) population and Amur basin (freshwater environment, FW) population. Through phylogenetic and divergence time analysis, we found that AL and FW populations forming distinct two groups which were consistent with geographic divergence (the formation of Lake Dali Nur). In addition, we found that almost of the windows exhibited higher nucleotide diversity in FW population (avg 0.0046) than AL population (avg 0.0012). This result indicated that severe environment selection had remarkably reduced the genetic diversity of mitogenome in AL population and suggested that severe environment selection had remarkably reduced the genetic diversity of mitogenome in the AL population. Compared with the FW population (ω = 0.064), the AL population (ω = 0.092) had a larger mean ω (dN/dS ratios) value for the 13 concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding genes, indicating that the high alkaline tolerated group had accumulated more nonsynonymous mutations. These nonsynonymous mutations had resulted in slightly beneficial amino acid changes that allowed adaption to the severe conditions. This study provides an additional view to decipher the adaptive mitogenome evolution of L. waleckii of the high alkaline environment.

Keywords

Adaptation,Alkaline environment,Leuciscus waleckii,Mitogenome,

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