Modelling and simulating Lenski's long-term evolution experiment.

Affiliation

University of Bielefeld, Faculty of Technology, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

We revisit the model by Wiser et al. (2013), which describes how the mean fitness increases over time due to beneficial mutations in Lenski's long-term evolution experiment. We develop the model further both conceptually and mathematically. Conceptually, we describe the experiment with the help of a Cannings model with mutation and selection, where the latter includes diminishing returns epistasis. The analysis sheds light on the growth dynamics within every single day and reveals a runtime effect, that is, the shortening of the daily growth period with increasing fitness; and it allows to clarify the contribution of epistasis to the mean fitness curve. Mathematically, we explain rigorous results in terms of a law of large numbers (in the limit of infinite population size and for a certain asymptotic parameter regime), and present approximations based on heuristics and supported by simulations for finite populations.

Keywords

Cannings model,Clonal interference,Epistasis,Lenski’s long-term evolution experiment,Offspring variance,Runtime effect,