Modulating functional connectivity with non-invasive brain stimulation for the investigation and alleviation of age-associated declines in response inhibition: A narrative review.


Action and Cognition Laboratory, School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia. Electronic address: [Email]


Response inhibition, the ability to withhold a dominant and prepotent response following a change in circumstance or sensory stimuli, declines with advancing age. While non-invasive brain stimulation (NiBS) has shown promise in alleviating some cognitive and motor functions in healthy older individuals, NiBS research focusing on response inhibition has mostly been conducted on younger adults. These extant studies have primarily focused on modulating the activity of distinct neural regions known to be critical for response inhibition, including the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). However, given that changes in structural and functional connectivity have been associated with healthy aging, this review proposes that NiBS protocols aimed at modulating the functional connectivity between the rIFG and pre-SMA may be the most efficacious approach to investigate-and perhaps even alleviate-age-related deficits in inhibitory control.


Aging,Functional connectivity,Neural oscillations,Phase synchronization,Response inhibition,Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS),