Resveratrol and its methyl ethers, which belong to a class of natural polyphenol stilbenes, play important roles as biologically active compounds in plant defense as well as in human health. Although the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol has been fully elucidated, the characterization of resveratrol-specific O-methyltransferases remains elusive. In this study, we used RNA-seq analysis to identify a putative aromatic O-methyltransferase gene, AcOMT1, in Acorus calamus. Recombinant AcOMT1 expressed in Escherichia coli showed high 4'-O-methylation activity toward resveratrol and its derivative, isorhapontigenin. We purified a reaction product enzymatically formed from resveratrol by AcOMT1 and confirmed it as 4'-O-methylresveratrol (deoxyrhapontigenin). Resveratrol and isorhapontigenin were the most preferred substrates with apparent Km values of 1.8 μM and 4.2 μM, respectively. Recombinant AcOMT1 exhibited reduced activity toward other resveratrol derivatives, piceatannol, oxyresveratrol, and pinostilbene. In contrast, recombinant AcOMT1 exhibited no activity toward pterostilbene or pinosylvin. These results indicate that AcOMT1 showed high 4'-O-methylation activity toward stilbenes with non-methylated phloroglucinol rings.