Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has previously been shown to increase porcine 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase (OAS) 1a expression, but the specific role of porcine OAS1b (pOAS1b) in PRRSV replication remains unknown. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of the porcine OAS1b gene and studied the effects of its overexpression or silencing on PRRSV replication. OAS1b, localized mainly in the cytoplasm, was found to contain conserved protein domains, such as the P-Loop and D-Box, indicating that its nucleotidyl transferase activity was complete and the antiviral effect depended on ribonuclease L (RNase L). OAS1b overexpression inhibited PRRSV replication, whereas small-interfering-RNA silencing of OAS1b resulted in increased virus titers. Additionally, OAS1b promoted expression of interferons as well as interferon-β promoter activity. These results lay the theoretical foundation for the development of new anti-PRRSV strategies.