The cure rate for several solid tumour malignancies including breast cancers, head and neck cancers, bone cancers, and sarcoma has improved remarkably with the advent of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies. Unfortunately, exposure to chemotherapy or radiation as a part of these treatments exposes patients to the risk of subsequent myeloid malignancies. Therapy related myeloid malignancies have certain characteristic findings. They typically arise within 10 years of treatment exposure, they are seen in younger patients, and the greatest risk is in patients who receive therapy with alkylating agents or topoisomerase II inhibitors. Solid tumours whose therapies utilize these agents at higher doses, namely bone/soft tissue cancers, testicular cancer, anal cancer, and brain tumours, appear to be the groups at highest risk for T-MN. Beyond these patients, emerging populations diagnosed with T-MN include prior platinum exposure, and patients requiring G-CSF support with chemotherapy.