Despite the critical breakthrough achieved by immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), the clinical benefits are usually restricted by inefficient infiltration of immune cells and immune-associated adverse effects. Noninvasive aerosol inhalation, as a definitive procedure for treatment of respiratory diseases, for ICB immunotherapy against lung metastasis, has not been realized to the best knowledge. Herein, an inhaled immunotherapeutic chitosan (CS)-antibody complex is developed for immunotherapy against lung cancer. In this system, CS is used as a carrier to assemble with anti-programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (aPD-L1) to enable efficient transmucosal delivery. Moreover, CS exhibits adjuvant effects to drive potent immune responses via activating the cyclic-di-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. Interestingly, repeated inhalation of CS/aPD-L1 complex can effectively activate the immune system by promoting the infiltration of different immune cells especially CD8+ T cells around tumor lesions, and finally prolongs the survival of mice to 60 days. Thus, the work presents a unique aerosol inhalation delivery system for ICB antibody, which is promising for immunotherapy against lung metastasis without the concern of systemic toxicity.
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