Escarcega JD(1), Knutsen AK(2), Okamoto RJ(3), Pham DL(2), Bayly PV(3). Author information:
(1)Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St.
Louis, MO, United States. Electronic address: [Email]
(2)Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Henry M. Jackson
Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, United
(3)Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St.
Louis, MO, United States.
Natural modes and frequencies of three-dimensional (3D) deformation of the human brain were identified from in vivo tagged magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired dynamically during transient mild acceleration of the head. Twenty 3D strain fields, estimated from tagged MRI image volumes in 19 adult subjects, were analyzed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). These strain fields represented dynamic, 3D brain deformations during constrained head accelerations, either involving rotation about the vertical axis of the neck or neck extension. DMD results reveal fundamental oscillatory modes of deformation at damped frequencies near 7 Hz (in neck rotation) and 11 Hz (in neck extension). Modes at these frequencies were found consistently among all subjects. These characteristic features of 3D human brain deformation are important for understanding the response of the brain in head impacts and provide valuable quantitative criteria for the evaluation and use of computer models of brain mechanics.
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