Neonicotinoid insecticides in the drinking water system - Fate, transportation, and their contributions to the overall dietary risks.


College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310032, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: [Email]


Neonicotinoids (Neonics) have become the most widely used insecticides around the world in recent years. Due to the hydrophilic character, neonics are emerging contaminants in drinking water. In this study, we aimed to characterize and quantify the fate and transport of neonics in the drinking water treatment system and their contributions to the overall dietary risks. Seven neonics in 97 surface and drinking water samples in the city of Hangzhou, China were analyzed. The relative potency factor method was adopted in order to calculate the total neonics concentrations. We then used the Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the chronic daily intake (CDI) of total neonics from water consumption. All 16 surface water samples collected from two rivers contained at least two neonics, and more than 93% of those contained 3 or more neonics. Imidacloprid was detected in all 16 surface water samples, followed by clothianidin and acetamiprid with average concentrations of 11.9, 7.6, 17.6 ng L-1, respectively. The drinking water treatment plants removed approximately 50% of neonics from surface water. However, 68 out of 71 tap water samples that we collected from the household faucets contained at least one neonic, with the highest average concentrations of 5.8 ng L-1 for acetamiprid. The maximum of CDIs of total neonics from water consumption for adult and children were 10.2 and 12.4 ng kg-1 d-1, respectively, which are significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results presented here shown drinking water consumption only represented an insignificant portion of dietary risks of total neonics, mainly due to the modern drinking water treatment technologies that are capable of removing significant amount of neonics from drinking water. However, the ubiquity of neonics in the drinking water sources to kitchen faucets, should be a concern for public health.


Dietary risks,Drinking water,Fate,Neonicotinoids,Public health,

OUR Recent Articles