For the first time, the pigment composition of basidiocarps from the Chilean mushroom Cortinarius pyromyxa was studied under various aspects like phylogeny, chemistry and antibiotic activity. A molecular biological study supports the monotypic position of C. pyromyxa in subgenus Myxacium, genus Cortinarius. Four undescribed diterpenoids, named pyromyxones A-D, were isolated from fruiting bodies of C. pyromyxa. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on comprehensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analysis, ESI-HRMS measurements, as well as X-ray crystallography. In addition, the absolute configurations of pyromyxones A-D were established with the aid of JH,H, NOESY spectra and quantum chemical CD calculation. The pyromyxones A-D possess the undescribed nor-guanacastane skeleton. Tested pyromyxones A, B, and D exhibit only weak activity against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri as well as the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici and Phytophthora infestans.