Occurrence of and radioanalytical methods used to determine medical radionuclides in environmental and biological samples. A review.

Affiliation

Departament de Química Analítica i Química Orgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Unitat de Radioquímica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d'Aigües de Tarragona (CAT), Carretera Nacional 340, Km. 1094, 43895, L'Ampolla, Tarragona, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Medical radionuclides are widely used in nuclear medicine practices today. Their production, handling and administration have different impacts on the environment and society due to the radioactive waste generated. Over recent years authors have taken an interest in the monitoring and safe disposal of this radiopharmaceutical waste, mainly in environmental and biological samples, and consequently a variety of radioanalytical methods for these matrices have been developed. The present review aims to outline the state of the art and the latest trends reported in the literature from 2007 to the present, focusing on the occurrence and determination of medical radionuclides in environmental and biological samples. Special attention is given to critically discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the different steps involved in determining medical radionuclides in these types of matrices. The methodologies presented are accompanied by examples.

Keywords

Air,Medical radionuclides,Sediments,Sewage sludge,Urine,Wastewater,

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