Organohalide-respiring Desulfoluna species isolated from marine environments.

Affiliation

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands. [Email]

Abstract

The genus Desulfoluna comprises two anaerobic sulfate-reducing strains, D. spongiiphila AA1T and D. butyratoxydans MSL71T, of which only the former was shown to perform organohalide respiration (OHR). Here we isolated a third strain, designated D. spongiiphila strain DBB, from marine intertidal sediment using 1,4-dibromobenzene and sulfate as the electron acceptors and lactate as the electron donor. Each strain harbors three reductive dehalogenase gene clusters (rdhABC) and corrinoid biosynthesis genes in their genomes, and dehalogenated brominated but not chlorinated organohalogens. The Desulfoluna strains maintained OHR in the presence of 20 mM sulfate or 20 mM sulfide, which often negatively affect other organohalide-respiring bacteria. Strain DBB sustained OHR with 2% oxygen in the gas phase, in line with its genetic potential for reactive oxygen species detoxification. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed differential induction of rdhA genes in strain DBB in response to 1,4-dibromobenzene or 2,6-dibromophenol. Proteomic analysis confirmed expression of rdhA1 with 1,4-dibromobenzene, and revealed a partially shared electron transport chain from lactate to 1,4-dibromobenzene and sulfate, which may explain accelerated OHR during concurrent sulfate reduction. Versatility in using electron donors, de novo corrinoid biosynthesis, resistance to sulfate, sulfide and oxygen, and concurrent sulfate reduction and OHR may confer an advantage to marine Desulfoluna strains.

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