Osteogenic potential of the growth factors and bioactive molecules in bone regeneration.

Affiliation

Safari B(1), Davaran S(1), Aghanejad A(2).
Author information:
(1)Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
(2)Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Biomedicine Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The growing need for treatment of the impaired bone tissue has resulted in the quest for the improvement of bone tissue regeneration strategies. Bone tissue engineering is trying to create bio-inspired systems with a coordinated combination of the cells, scaffolds, and bioactive factors to repair the damaged bone tissue. The scaffold provides a supportive matrix for cell growth, migration, and differentiation and also, acts as a delivery system for bioactive factors. Bioactive factors including a large group of cytokines, growth factors (GFs), peptides, and hormonal signals that regulate cellular behaviors. These factors stimulate osteogenic differentiation and proliferation of cells by activating the signaling cascades related to ossification and angiogenesis. GFs and bioactive peptides are significant parts of the bone tissue engineering systems. Besides, the use of the osteogenic potential of hormonal signals has been an attractive topic, particularly in osteoporosis-related bone defects. Due to the unstable nature of protein factors and non-specific effects of hormones, the engineering of scaffolds to the controlled delivery of these bioactive molecules has paramount importance. This review updates the growth factors, engineered peptides, and hormones that are used in bone tissue engineering systems. Also, discusses how these bioactive molecules may be linked to accelerating bone regeneration.