Ovariectomy predisposes female rats to fine particulate matter exposure's effects by altering metabolic, oxidative, pro-inflammatory, and heat-shock protein levels.

Author

Pauline Brendler Goettems-Fiorin

Affiliation

Research Group in Physiology, Department of Life Sciences, Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul State (UNIJUÍ), Rua do Comércio, 3000 - Bairro Universitário, Ijuí, RS, 98700-000, Brazil. [Email]

Abstract

The reduction of estrogen levels, as a result of menopause, is associated with the development of metabolic diseases caused by alterations in oxidative stress (OS), inflammatory biomarkers, and 70-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70) expression. Additionally, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution modifies liver OS levels and predisposes organisms to metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We investigated whether ovariectomy affects hepatic tissue and alters glucose metabolism in female rats exposed to particulate air pollution. First, 24 female Wistar rats received an intranasal instillation of saline or particles suspended in saline 5 times per week for 12 weeks. The animals then received either bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or false surgery (sham) and continued to receive saline or particles for 12 additional weeks, comprising four groups: CTRL, Polluted, OVX, and Polluted+OVX. Ovariectomy increased body weight and adiposity and promoted edema in hepatic tissue, hypercholesterolemia, glucose intolerance, and a pro-inflammatory profile (reduced IL-10 levels and increased IL-6/IL-10 ratio levels), independent of particle exposure. The Polluted+OVX group showed an increase in neutrophils and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios, decreased antioxidant defense (SOD activity), and increased liver iHSP70 levels. In conclusion, alterations in the reproductive system predispose female organisms to particulate matter air pollution effects by affecting metabolic, oxidative, pro-inflammatory, and heat-shock protein expression.

Keywords

Air pollution,Estrogen,Heat shock proteins,Inflammation,Menopause,Metabolic diseases,Oxidative stress,