Patent Foramen Ovale: Pivotal Role of Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Indications for Closure, Assessment of Varying Anatomies and Post-procedure Follow-up.


Department of Cardiology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in 15%-30% of the general population and has been associated with various pathologic states, including cryptogenic stroke, platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, decompression sickness and migraine with auras. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has a major role in the diagnostic evaluation of PFO, as well as in the post-procedural assessment after transcatheter closure. The goals of this article were to synthesize the echocardiographic transesophageal techniques required for accurate PFO diagnosis and careful anatomic assessment of its anatomic variants, to focus TEE indications for device closure as complementary to clinical indications and to assess the role of TEE in the post-procedure follow-up.


Device closure,Patent foramen ovale,Transesophageal echocardiography,