Patient- and 3D morphometry-based nose outcomes after skeletofacial reconstruction.


Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. [Email]


Patient satisfaction with the shape and appearance of their nose after orthognathic surgery-based skeletofacial reconstruction is an important, but often overlooked, outcome. We assessed the nose-related outcomes through a recently developed patient-reported outcome instrument and a widely adopted 3D computer-based objective outcome instrument, to verify any correlation in the results produced by these tools. We collected FACE-Q nose appearance reports (2 scales) and 3D nasal morphometry (10 parameters) from patients with class III skeletal pattern and congenital cleft lip palate deformity (n = 23) or developmental dentofacial deformity (n = 23) after (>12 months) skeletofacial reconstruction. The cleft and dentofacial cohorts demonstrated significantly (p < 0.001) poorer satisfaction scores with regard to the FACE-Q nostrils scale than the normal age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched subjects (n = 107), without any significant difference in FACE-Q nose scale. The cleft cohort had significantly (p < 0.001) smaller nasal length, nasal tip projection, and columellar angle and greater nasal protrusion, alar width, and columellar-labial angle values than the dentofacial and normal cohorts; however, there were no significant differences between the dentofacial versus normal cohorts. The FACE-Q nose and nostrils scales were significantly (p < 0.001; r = -0.26-0.27) correlated to the results of the 3D morphometric analysis, with regard to nasal length, alar width, columella angle, and columellar-labial angle parameters. This study revealed differences in satisfaction with the appearance of the nose according to the type of underlying deformity, and demonstrated a significant correlation (low correlation coefficients) between the patient-reports and 3D image-based outcome measure tools, which has implications for multidisciplinary-centered research, auditing, and clinical care.