Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Teikyo University Graduate School of Public Health, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]
No information exists regarding the effects of working hours on glucose metabolism in adults with pre-diabetes, a high-risk group for developing diabetes. Further, longitudinal patterns in working hours and their effects on glucose metabolism have not been described previously. We investigated the association between changes in overtime working hours over 3 years and the risk for progression to type 2 diabetes among adults with pre-diabetes. We analyzed patterns of overtime working hours from 2008 to 2011 among 18,172 workers in Japan (16,474 men, aged 30 to 64 years) with pre-diabetes in 2011 (baseline) using the sub-cohort data from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study. Participants were followed up to March 2016. Overtime working hours per month were self-reported annually in 2008-2011 and trajectory patterns were identified using group-based trajectory modeling. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed by fasting or random plasma glucose test, hemoglobin A1c, and history of diabetes. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of incident diabetes were calculated using Cox regression. We identified 3 distinct trajectories of overtime work: persistently short, long-to-short, and persistently long. During a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, 1613 participants (8.9%) developed diabetes. Compared with persistently short overtime working hours, no material increase in diabetes risk was observed for either long-to-short working hours or persistently long working hours. After adjustment for potential confounders, this association was materially unchanged. The results suggest that among individuals with pre-diabetes, persistently long working hours over 3 years were not associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.